Consultants, advisers, and contributors
Professor Christopher Butler (chair)
Professor Jean Aitchison
Professor Anna Morpurgo Davies, DBE
Professor Eric Stanley
Professor Gabriele Stein
The Editors are indebted to the following for specialist advice on aspects of entries in the New Edition and the three Additions volumes.
Professor Bas Aarts, Professor Flor Aarts, Mr K. T. Achaya, Dr Sander Adelaar, Professor William Adelaar, Professor Anders Ahlqvist, Professor Alexandra Aikhenvald, Professor Malcolm Airs, Dr Robert Allen, Dr Jeannette Allsopp, Professor Richard Allsopp, Dr Stanley Alpern, Dr Helga Anetshofer, Miss Janet Arnold, Dr Richard Ashdowne, Professor Milton Azevedo.
Professor Emmon Bach, Professor John Baines, Dr Nick Baines, Dr Philip Baker, Mr D. Ballantyne, Professor Ayo Bamgbose, Ms Katherine Barber, Mr Don Barclay, Professor Michael Barnes, Mr Robert Barnhart, Dr David Barrett, Mrs Priscilla Bawcutt, Mr Paul Beale, Dr Philip Beckett, Mr Ian Beestin, Professor Paola Beninca, Professor Jim Bennett, Dr Henry Bennet-Clark, Professor Michael Benton, Ms Donna Lee Berg, Mr Jonathan Betts, Mr Jeff Betz, Mr Ilker Evrim Binbas, Mr Alex Bisset, Dr Jeremy Black, Professor John Black, Professor Robert Black QC, Dr Mark Blackburn, Mr Howard Blackmore, Mr Claude Blair, Dr Barry Blake, Dr Jean-Alain Blanchon, Dr Fozia Bora, Mr Willem Botha, Mr Ron Bowater, Mr Richard Boyle, Dr Saville Bradbury, Professor David Bradley, Dr Paul Brand, Dr Jean Branford, Professor William Branford, Dr Andrew Breeze, Professor Rolf H. Bremmer Jr, Professor Matthias Brenzinger, Dr Derek Britton, Dr Sebastian Brock, Dr Christopher Brooke, Professor John Brooke, Dr Clare Browne, Mr Robert Bruce, Dr Martin Bryce, Dr Robert Burchfield, Professor Charles Burnett, Mr Peter Burnett, Professor David Burnley, Dr Colin Burrow, Mr Tony Burton.
Professor Michael Cable, Professor Robert Cahn, Ms Pauline Cairns Speitel, Dr John Caldwell, Dr Richard Cammack, Ms Marion Campbell, Dr Alessandro Carlucci, Mr Andrew Carr, Dr Lawrence Carrington, Dr John Carson, Dr Nicoletta Casagrande, Professor Frederic Cassidy, Professor Victor Castellani, Dr R. Cerron Palomino, Mr Emmanuel Chabata, Professor H. Samuel Cheung, Mr Michael Chrimes, Professor Ian Christie, Dr James Clackson, Dr Marie Clague, Dr Mike Clark, Dr Helen Clifford, Mr Nigel Clifford, Professor Eric Clive, Dr Frank Close, Dr Victor Clube, Professor Michael Coe, Professor I. Bernard Cohen, Dr Julie Coleman, Sir Howard Colvin, Dr Stephen Colvin, Dr John Considine, Dr Barrie Cook, Ms Marie-Hélène Corréard, Dr Marilyn Corrie, Mr John Cottis, Dr J. Coulton, Mrs Linda Covill, Mr Mike Cowlishaw, Mrs Nancy Cox, Dr David Cram, Mr Neil Crawford, Mr Arthur Credland, Dr Stephen Cretney, Mr Maurice Crewe, Dr Joe Cribb, Dr Quentin Cronk, Dr Paul Cullen.
Dr David Dalby, Dr Richard Dance, Mr J. Dauncy, Professor Herbert David, Mr Alan Davidson, Ms Hilary Davidson, Dr J. H. C. S. Davidson, Dr Chris Davies, Dr Christopher Day, Dr Karl Dayson, Dr Trevor Dean, Professor Allen G. Debus, Dr Yorgos Dedes, Dr Dennis Deletant, Professor Bardhyl Demiraj, Professor David Denison, Dr Paul Dennis, Dr Anthony Deverson, Professor Bernhard Diensberg, Dr Anthony Diller, Professor Gerrit Dimmendaal, Dr Alexander Drace-Francis, Professor Philip Drazin, Professor Glen Dudbridge, Mr Mark Dunn, Dr Michael Dunn, Professor David J. Dwyer.
Professor R. S. Edgecombe, Professor Jerold A. Edmondson, Dr Frederick Emmison, Mr Donovan Evans, Mrs Kati Evans.
Dr Patricia Fara, Dr Douglas Farnie, Dr Margery Fee, Professor Peter Fellgett, Dr Julia Flanders, Mr Michael Fleming, Dr Christopher Foot, Dr John Forrest, Dr Cliff Forshaw, Dr David Fowler, Mr P. J. L. Frankl, Mr Harvey Freilich, Mr Douglas Freund, Professor Graham Furniss.
Mr Walter Gale, President Bryan Garner, Dr Stathis Gauntlett, Dr Paul Geraghty, Dr Andreas Giazitzoglu, Mr Charlie Gillett, Professor William Gillies, Professor Owen Gingerich, Dr Peter Glare, Professor Ives Goddard, Professor Manfred Görlach, Professor Charles Goodhart, Mr Rody Gorman, Dr Chris Gosden, Mr Benjamin du Plessis Goslin, Dr John Gould, Mr John Graham, Professor Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Mr Christopher Gravett, Mr Jonathon Green, Mr Daniel Greenberg, Dr Mark Griffith, Mr Michael Grose, Dr David Grylls, Professor Paul Gunashekar, Dr Anthea Gupta, Mr Dominic Gwynn.
Professor Wilfrid Haacke, Dr Joan Hall, Dr Roland Hall, Dr Simon Hall, Professor Ian Hancock, Professor Jón Axel Harðarson, Dr Philip Hardie, Mr David Harley, Duncan Harrington, Mrs Jessica Harrison, Mr Alan Hartley, Mr Andrew Hawke, Dr Katrina Hayward, Professor Antonette diPaolo Healey, Professor John Healey, Professor Donna Heddle, Professor Bernd Heine, Mr Stephen Herbert, Dr Andrew Herd, Professor Edmund Herzig, Professor B. George Hewitt, Dr M. T. Heydeman, Professor Raymond Hickey, Revd Dr Richard Hills, Dr Rhisiart Hincks, Mr Terry Hoad, Dr Peter Hoare, Dr Fred Hocker, Professor Wilfrid A. Hodges, Mr Richard Holden, Miss Rachel Holdforth, Dr Joan Holland, Mrs Deborah Honoré, Professor Simon Hopkins, Dr James Howard-Johnson, Dr David Howlett, Dr Michael Hoy MBE, Mr Giles Hudson, Dr Tony Hunt, Mrs Ann Hyland.
Dr David Ibbetson, Dr Joanna Innes, Mr Michael Inwood.
Professor Philip J. Jaggar, Dr Frank James, Mr Philip Jarrett, Dr Dorothy Jauncey, Dr Lisa Jefferson, Dr Stephen Johnston, Dr Penelope Johnstone, Dr Malcolm Jones, Melissa Lynn Jones, Mr Nicholas Jones, Dr Russell Jones, Dr Anna Judson.
Professor Dieter Kastovsky, Dr Maurice Keen, Mr Peter Kemp, Dr Tom Kemp, Professor Wilfrid Kendall, Professor Graeme Kennedy, Mr John Kenyon, Ms Hilary Kent, Professor Eric Kerridge, Dr Simon Keynes, Professor Geoffrey Khan, Dr Matthew Kilburn, Dr Helen King, Professor Noel Kinnamon, Professor Alan Kirkness, Professor William Kirwin, Professor Harriet Klein, Dr Paul Klenerman, Dr Alwin Kloekhorst, Professor David Knight, Professor Roger Knight, Professor K. Koike, Professor William Kretzschmar, Dr Petek Kurtböke.
Dr Ann Lackie, Dr Meg Laing, Professor Barbara Lalla, Dr R. Lambourne, Professor Ian Lancashire, Professor David Langslow, Professor Roger Lass, Professor J. Derek Latham, Dr Amanda Laugesen, Edward Lavitt, Professor Joshua Lederberg, Professor John Leech, Dr Elisabeth Leedham-Green, Professor Giulio Lepschy, Dr Michael Lesk, Professor Geoffrey Lewis, Dr James Lewis, Mr Waldo Lewis, Dr Peter Lipton, Dr T. W. A. Little, Dr Susan Llewelyn, Professor W. B. Lockwood, Dr Harry Logan, Dr Andrew Louth, Dr Mafika Lubisi, Professor Paul Luna, Dr Tom Lundskær-Nielsen.
Dr Caroline Macafee, Dr John Macalister, Professor Diarmaid MacCulloch, Professor Peter Mackridge, Dr A. M. MacLean, Professor Ian Maclean, Ms Iseabail Macleod, Mr Michael Mac Mahon, Professor Mike MacMahon, Revd Tim Macquiban, Mr R. B. Madge, Dr Terry Mahoney, Professor Martin Maiden, Dr L. Malakhovski, Professor Alexis Manaster Ramer, Professor Cyril Mango, Mr Michael Mann, Ms Dorothea Mantzel, Dr Angela Marcantonio, Mr Mareme, Dr Francis Marriott, Dr Brian Marsden, Mr John Marson, Dr Lutz Marten, Mr John Martin Robinson, Dr Yaron Matras, Professor P. Matthews, Dr Anki Mattisson, Professor Ernst Mayr, Mr J. McAleer, Professor Peter McClure, Professor Robert McColl Millar, Dr R. McGregor, Dr Ian McLean, Professor Hew McLeod, Dr Frances McSparran, Dr Torsten Meissner, Dr Ronny Meyer, Dr Sarah Milliken, Dr D. W. Minter, Dr Charles Mitchell, Mrs Jacqueline Mitton, Dr Simon Mitton, Professor Frankwalt Möhren, Professor Fons Moerdijk, Mr Winston Mohapi, Professor Jerry Mojalefa, Mr Jeremy Montagu, Dr Marijke Mooijaart, Dr Bruce Moore, Dr Kenneth Morgan, Robert Moriarty, Dr Jonathan Morris, Mr Alexander Morton, Dr Adam Mosley, Mr James Mosley, Dr David Murison, Dr Klaus Johan Myrvoll.
Dr Daisy Neijmann, Professor Peter Neumann, Dr C. Nic Phaidin, Professor John North, Ms Susan North, Professor Vivian Nutton.
Professor C. O Dochartaigh, Dr Heather O’Donoghue, Ms Sarah Ogilvie, Professor Roibeard Ó Maolalaigh, Mrs Iona Opie, Dr Harry Orsman, Dr Sandra Ott, Dr James Overduin, Professor Gale Owen Crocker, Mr Geoffrey Oxley.
Professor Robin Palmer, Dr Costas Panayotakis, Professor Malcolm Parkes, Mr David Parkinson, Dr Stephen Parkinson, Mr David Parlett, Dr David Parsons, Professor Andrew Pawley, Dr Robin Payne, Mr Mark Pearson, Professor Matthew Pearson, Dr David Pelteret, Mr Joshua Pendragon, Dr Robert Penhallurick, Mr David Penn, Dr John Penney, Professor Christopher Perrins, Dr Anna Philpott, Professor W. J. J. Pijnenburg, Sir Edward Playfair, Mr Graham Pointon, Dr Velma Pollard, Ms Jo Poke, Mr Barry Popik, Dr Anne Popkema, Professor Rebecca Posner, Professor Ian Press, Dr John Price-Wilkin, Professor Daan Prinsloo, Dr Tijmen Pronk.
Mr Michael Quinion.
Professor Edith Raidt, Dr Charles Ramble, Dr William Ramson, Dr Charles Randriamasimanana, Mr Andrew Rappaport, Mr Chris Ravilious, Dr Darrell Raymond, Mr Lloyd Readhead, Professor Phil Redmond, Dr Gertrude Reershemius, Dr Chris Reynolds, Dr Frances Reynolds, Ms Vivienne Richardson, Professor R. H. Robins, Dr Christine Robinson, Dr Frank Robinson, Dr James Robinson, Mrs Mairi Robinson, Dr Stuart Robson, Professor Derek Roe, Professor Gary Rosenberg, Dr Harold Rosenberg, Professor Jerry Rosenberg, Mrs Penelope Ruddock, Dr Paul Russell.
Captain Tony Sainsbury, Dr Bertil Sandahl, Ms Nikki Santilli, Professor Sizwe Satyo, Professor Thilo Schadeberg, Professor Raymond Scheindlin, Roger Lea Scherer, Dr Tanneke Schoonheim, Dr Martina Schultz, Mr D. L. F. Sealy, Mr Fred Shapiro, Dr Andrew Sherratt, Professor Graham Shorrocks, Professor Ian Short, Mr David Shulman, Mrs Penny Silva, Professor Nicholas Sims-Williams, Mrs Pauline Simpson, Professor Paul Slack, Dr Sarah Slaney, Dr Peter Smith, Dr David Smyth, Mr D. Smythe, Professor Peter Spargo, Mrs Erika Speel, Dr Jonathan Spencer, Mr Robert Spencer, Mrs Isabelle Stables, Mr Michael Stammers, Dr Sol Steinmetz, Dr Patrick Stiles, Dr Ines Stolpe, Dr Gerald Stone, Professor Hew Strachan, Dr Chris Stray, Dr S. S. Strickland, Revd Canon Vincent Strudwick, Professor Frits Stuurman, Dr Jackson Sun, Professor Stuart Sutherland, Ms Julia Swannell, Dr Louise Sylvester.
Dr Alice-Mary Talbot, Professor Tao Jie, Dr Roger Teichmann, Mr Julian Temple, Professor Barend Ter Haar, Professor Rold Theil, Dr Geoffrey Thomas, Dr Simon Thurley, Dr Kate Tiller, Dr Vanessa Toulmin, Dr Larry Trask, Professor Susan Treggiari, Professor Guenter Treitel, Professor David Trotter, Dr Elizabeth Tucker, Dr Stephen Tyre.
Dr Clive Upton, Professor James Urmson.
Professor T. G. Vallance, Professor Dr George van Driem, Professor Andrejs Veisbergs, Professor Lars Vikør, Dr Sophia Voutsaki, Dr Valentin Vydrine.
Mr John Wagstaff, Mr Adrian Walker, Dr Donald Walker, Mr Kevin Walsh, Lord Walton of Detchant, Mr Peter Ward-Jones, Professor Nicholas Warren, Mr Matt Warshaw, Dr Justin Watkins, Dr Doreen Waugh, Dr Michael Weitzmann, Mr Chris Wells, Dr Max Wheeler, Professor Derek Whiteside, Mr Ken Whyld, Mr Simon Wickham-Smith, Professor John Widdowson, Professor David Wiggins, Professor Maurice Wilkes, Professor Hugh Williamson, Professor Kay Williamson, Dr Keith Williamson, Ms Anne Wilson, Mr Tim Wilson, Professor Lise Winer, Professor Michael Winterbottom, Ms Jill Wolvaardt, Professor Geoffrey Wood, Ms Sarah Woodcock, Mr Thomas Woodcock, Dr G. J. M. Woodrow, Mrs Hazel Wright, Professor J. Clifford Wright, Dr Ruth Wynne-Davies.
Dr Jason Zerdin, Dr David Zorc, Dr Ghil`ad Zuckermann, Dr Leonard Zwilling.
Other advisers and contributors
The Editors are also indebted to the many others who have contributed information on particular entries in the Dictionary; also to the staff of the libraries, especially the Bodleian Library (Oxford), the British Library (London), the Library of Congress (Washington), and the New York Public Library, who have unfailingly treated the Dictionary’s requests for information and assistance with courtesy and dispatch.
We are indebted to Professor Isamu Hayakawa for his research and publications on the history and usage of Japanese words borrowed into English.
In addition, the staff of many dictionary projects and other research organizations have generously made available to the OED unpublished material and invaluable advice, especially:
The Anglo-Norman Dictionary (ed. Professor William Rothwell and Professor David Trotter)
The Australian National Dictionary Centre, Canberra
The Dictionary of American Regional English (ed. Frederic Cassidy)
The Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage (ed. Richard Allsopp)
The Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources (ed. David Howlett), Oxford
The Dictionary of Old English (ed. Antonette diPaolo Healey), Toronto
The Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (ed. H. D. Watson et al.)
The Dictionary Unit for South African English, Grahamstown
The Historical Dictionary of American Slang (ed. Jonathan Lighter)
The Middle English Dictionary (ed. Robert Lewis et al.), Ann Arbor, Michigan
The New Zealand Dictionary Unit, Wellington
The Scottish Language Dictionaries, Edinburgh
The Scottish National Dictionary (ed. William Grant and David D. Murison)
Other organizations which have played a significant part in the work include the Brown Women Writers Project (Brown University), the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor (especially Professor Richard Bailey and Professor Francis Blouin), the Lexicons of Early Modern English project (formerly Early Modern English Dictionaries Database) at the University of Toronto, and the Manx National Heritage Library & Archives. The editors would like to thank Mr James Wyllie for presenting a collection of dictionary materials belonging to his father, former OED staff editor James McLeod Wyllie, for the OED’s use.